Ocerebellum(which is Latin for the "small brain") is an important structure of the posterior brain located near the brain trunk.
The cerebellum is the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary movements.It is also responsible for several functions, including motor skills such as balance, coordination and posture.
Where is the cerebellum?
The cerebellum is the largest structure of the posterior brain and can be found in the back of the skull under the temporal and occipital lobes and behind the brain trunk.
When looking at the brain, the cerebellum looks a lot like a smaller structure separated from the brain, which is found under the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.The cerebellum consists of a crust that covers the white mine, as well as a ventricle full of liquid.Two hemispheres, such as cerebral cortex.
There are two main parts of the cerebellum:
- Cerebelosa cortex:A layer of folded fabric containing most cerebellum neurons
- Cerebelo nuclei: The most internal part of the cerebellum containing nerve cells that communicate cerebellum information
The cerebellum represents only 10% of the total brain volume, but contains approximately 50%and 80%brainneurons.
A guide for brain anatomy
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
The cerebellum receives information from other regions of the brain and the nervous system, including brain trunk, spinal cord and brain.The information received is used by the cerebellum to coordinate and control voluntary movements.
The cerebellum is like a "mini-cerebro" when it comes to movement and plays an important role in coordination, posture and balance, as well as in speech and in several important mental processes.
There are several important cerebellar functions, which include:
- Balance and posture
- Mental function
- Motor learning
Impact of the cerebellum
The cerebellum has an impact on several critical functions.
Coordinate the voluntary movements of the body
Movement is a complex process that requires several different muscle groups that work together.Consider how many muscle groups are involved in the process of walking, running or touching a ball.
Although it is believed that the cerebellum begins the movement, this part of the brain helps to organize all the actions of the muscle groups involved in a specific movement to ensure that the body can produce a fluid and coordinated movement.This includes ocular movements and associated speech movements of speech.
Researchers believe that the cerebellum plays a role in thought, including language processing and mood, as well as attention, response to fear and response to pleasure or reward.
How does the cerebellum affect behavior?
Although the cerebellum is traditionally associated with motor control, studies discover that the cerebellum influences emotional regulation, inhibits impulsive decision making and affects memory.
Balance and posture
To understand the important role that the cerebellum plays, it can be useful to analyze what happens when the function of this part of the brain is affected.
Drinking alcohol, for example, has an immediate effect on the cerebellum and leads to interruptions on coordination and body movements.People who are severelydrunkYou may think that you can't even walk straight or touch your own nose when they are told.
When he learns to make a new skill, such as riding a bicycle or hitting a baseball, you usually pass through an attempt and error process.When adjusting the engine movements, you become more capable of performing the skill and, eventually, you can perform the action perfectly.The cerebellum plays a fundamental role in this motor learning process.
Causes of damage to the cerebellum
The damage to the cerebellum, or its connection with other parts of the nervous system, can be the result of trauma,Congenital condition, health conditions, medicines and other factors, including:
- Alcohol consumption disorder
- Tumor cerebral
- Cranial lesion
- Huntington's disease
- Lead or mercury poisoning
- Medications, including benzodiazepines or barbiturates
- Multiple sclerosis
- Parkinson disease
Conditions that affect the cerebellum
When your cerebellum is damaged, nerve cells break and die and can cause the following:
- Disorder:The loss of voluntary movement control (for example, the ability to move your body in the way you want)
- Cognitive deterioration:A reduction in conscious mental activities, which include thinking, learning, memory and concentration.
- Dystonia: Involuntary contraction of the muscles that normally work in cooperation, so that a part of the body remains in an unusual and often painful position as a result
- Tremors: Rhythmic and involuntary contraction of muscles that can lead to agitation movements in the hands, legs, face, head or vocal strings
- Unstable march:Unstable or clumsy walk (an unstable person may seem intoxicated, even if not the case).
- Vertigo: The feeling of dizziness of turning, swinging or inclined, which is often associated with balance problems and generally accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache or hearing loss
In addition, researchers are studying the connection between cerebellum and the following dysfunction:
- Anxiety disorders:A category of disorders, includingpanic syndromemiSocial Anxiety Disorderthat are marked by anxiety or excessive or irrational fear that is disproportionate to the real threat
- Autistic spectrum disorder: A development condition that causes damage to social interactions and communication
- Dyslexia:A disorder that hinders the discourse process and results in problems with reading, writing and spelling
- Schizophrenia: A psychotic disorder characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, emotions and beliefs that are not connected to reality
Cerebelo damage symptoms
The following can be signs of injuries or cherry damage:
- Difficulty to swallow
- Difficulty walking or balance
- Inability to control ocular movements
- Speech problems (how to overflow your words)
- Problems with tasks that require fine motor skills (such as writing or eating)
What happens if the cerebellum is damaged?
Some people suffering from the cerebellum develop a condition called ataxia, which causes clumsy movements and deteriorated coordination.
See a doctor immediately, try these or other unusual symptoms.
How to protect your cerebellum
Although it cannot prevent many of the health conditions related to cerebellum, there are some steps that you can follow to keep your brain healthy and free of injury:
- Practice security.Use a safety belt in the car and a helmet while riding a bicycle or practices contact sports.It reduces the risks of falls in your home, protecting carpets and organizing loose cables.
- Healthy coma and exercise.A healthy diet and a regular exercise routine are excellent for your body and brain, and exercise can help stimulate blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of stroke.
- Cut alcohol.Chronic and heavy consumption can cause alcohol consumption disorder and cause stroke, factors in cerebellum damage.
- The father of smoking.Smoking cigarettes affects brain function and is related to a higher risk of stroke.
The different appearance of the cerebellum was first described thousands of years ago by philosophers.Dr. Romano Galen gave the first surviving descriptions written in this part of the brain.
However, it was not until the early nineteenth century that doctors and researchers began to learn more about the functions of this region of the brain.The experimental work involved in softening parts of the cerebellum in animals revealed that this part of the brain is important to coordinate the movement.
8 made in the brain
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Kendra Cherry, MS, is the author of "Everything Psychology Book (2nd edition)" and has written thousands of articles on various psychology issues.She Bachelor in Psychology of the State Idaho University with additional courses on substance use and case management.
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